||This thesis focuses on the special chapter of Czech economic history – the Jewish business activities. Its goal is to point out the importance, which Jewry has given to the economics in Czech countries. The first chapter focuses on the industrial revolution, when the great success in industry and business had occurred; the second one describes progress of the industries and points out the role of Jewish companies and financial institutions. The next chapter is devoted to Petschek, Gutmann and Rothschild families, which had influenced economic and political life in Czech Republic. The last chapter bears the interestingness about lives and enterprise of the most widely known businessmen and their companies, still famous, which make the Czech Republic well-known abroad.