||We are all used to the population explosion which has been here for more than a century. The situation of population growth is going to change soon and population differences are going to grow. What are the consequences of this population change? This thesis examines the relationship of population change and economic growth, one of the most studied and watched macroeconomic variable. The thesis provides an overview of current situation of demographic transition and a short recapitulation of history of population economics. On this basis, the complexity of empirical studies of population change is explained by theoretical economic growth model, which demonstrates the importance of age structure of population for economic growth analysis.