||Abstract in English This bachelor thesis Economic Performance and Fertility Rate in the EU Countries and the New Member States considers relationship between the economic and the population growth with a view to fertility rate in the EU. As a tool it uses two models which follow mutual determination of the economy and selected demographic indicators. First model uses facilities of the cross-country regression based on the neoclassical model of economic growth modified to account life cycle variations in labor supply behavior, second then uses A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility. Models descriptions place emphasis more on thoughts given by models than detail view of their derivation. The goal of this thesis is to offer besides description of common terms also illustration of connection between two interesting subject areas based on “human being”. Conclusion of the work summarizes the results of the application of both of the models to EU data with surprising finding of mutual supplementation.